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Sociology prediction 2023 paper-I & II

Sociology paper-I

S.NoUPSC QuestionsReflected  Questions
1 d)Is reference group theory a universally applicable model? Elucidate.P1Test 6 Q 4How can we use reference group theory to understand social mobility in India?
HLSN Q 21Reference groups and Relative deprivation/Sanskritisation
1 e)Do you think that the boundary line between ethnicity and race is blurred? Justify your answerP1Test 7 Q 8*Modernisation presupposes class society; however caste, ethnicity and race are still predominant. Explain
HLSN Q22Social stratification- Class, Status, Gender, Ethnicity and Race as dimensions
2 a)What, according to Robert Michels, is the iron law of oligarchy? Do lions and foxes in Vilfredo Pareto’s theory, essentially differ from each other? Substantiate.P1Test 8 Q 9What are the theoretical models of societal power? Which one of them is most applicable in advanced industrial societies?
HLSN Q38Circulation of elites
2 b)What is historical materialism? Examine its relevance in understanding contemporary societies.P1Test 3 Q 2Analyze the salient features of historical materialism
2 c)What are variables? How do they facilitate research?P2Test 9 Q 3cWhat are variables? Discuss their role in experimental research.
3 a)What are the characteristics of scientific method? Do you think that scientific method in conducting sociological research is foolproof? Elaborate.P2Test 3 Q 5cNo scientific system is ever capable of reproducing all concrete reality, nor can any conceptual apparatus ever do full justice to the infinite diversity of particular phenomena.  What solution Weber suggests ?
P1Test 1 Q 7Elaborate the problems and prospects  of sociology as a science.
3 b)How do you assess the changing patterns in kinship relations in societies today?P2Test 10 Q 5aGive some of the important studies relating to the changing  dimensions of family structure in urban India.
3) cIs Weber’s idea of bureaucracy a product of the historical experiences of Europe? Comment.P2Test 3 Q 6cMax  Weber says that modern lives are subject to institutions, which reduce humans to objects, and ultimately cages them to a life of monotony. Elaborate
4 a)Do you think that common sense is the starting point of social research? What are its advantages and limitations? Explain.P2Test 1 Q 1b“Sociological knowledge cannot be entirely separated from common sense”. Comment’
4 b)How is poverty a form of social exclusion? Illustrate in this connection the different dimensions of poverty and social exclusion.P1Test 7 Q 3Discuss the relationship between poverty and social exclusion.
P2Test 6 Q 6aSocial exclusion is a more multidimensional and multilevel concept than poverty. Discuss
HLLA Q 13Poverty, deprivation, inequalities and poverty alleviation schemes/multi-dimensional poverty and social exclusion
4 c)Highlight the differences and similarities between totemism and animism.P1Test 2 Q 7How Durkheimian concept of religion is different from that of his predecessors? What are the intellectual responses to his theory of religion?
5 a)Examine the relevance of corporate social responsibility in a world marked by increasing environmental crises.HLLA Q 27*Crisis of development: displacement, environmental problems and sustainability
5 b)How is civil society useful in deepening the roots of democracy?P2

Mock Test

Paper I Q 6c

Analsye the role of civil society in influencing collective mobilization in democratic society.
P2Test 4 Q 1cIf the state is marked by the logic of power, and the market dominated by that of profit, the logic of civil society is that of solidarity and civility. Comment
5 c)What functions does religion perform in a pluralistic society?P2

Mock Test

Paper I Q 7b

Elaborate Emile Durkheim s analysis of the elementary forms of religious life and  role of religion in society. How does he explain existence of religion in modern industrial societies?
P1Test 2 Q 5To what extent Durkheimian explanation of religion relevant to the contemporary scenario in India?
5 e)Does women’s education help to eradicate patriarchal discriminations? Reflect with illustrations.P2Test 9Is patriarchy a universal phenomenon? To what extent is patriarchy a cause for the problems of women?
HLSN 57Challenges before Girl’s education
6 a)What are the different dimensions of qualitative method? Do you think that qualitative method helps to gain a deeper sociological insight? Give reasons for your answer.P2Test 7 Q 6aExamine epistemological foundations of qualitative methods of social research. Analyse its limitations in social research.
HLLA Q 27Quantitative and Qualitative techniques
6 b)Explain Max Weber’s theory of social stratification. How does Weber’s idea of class differ from that of Marx?P1Test 7 Q 7Compare and contrast the contributions of Marx and Weber on social stratification in capitalist society?
P2Test 6 Q 2bCompare and contrast the contributions of Marx and Weber on social stratification in capitalist society
HLLA Q 18Social stratification: Karl Marx Vs Weber
6 c)What are the ethical issues that a researcher faces in making use of participant observation as a method of collecting data? Explain.P2

Mock Test

Paper I Q 1c

What is Participant Observation? Enumerate the advantages and disadvantages of participant observations.
P1Test 10 Q 3“Participant observation is the most effective tool for collecting facts.” Comment.
7 a)Explain how economic globalization has brought changes in the patterns of employment in the 21st century.P1Test 15 Q 5Comment on the sociological impact of globalization on people working in the Informal sector
7 b)Do you think that the social media has brought significant changes in the forms of protest? Argue your case.P2

Mock Test

Paper II Q 5d

In what ways social media network facilitate new social movements? Give suitable examples
7 c)What is Taylorism? Analyze its merits and demerits.P1Test 2 Q 8*The division of labour goes beyond economic interests to establish social and moral order within a society. Critically examine
8 a)Assess critically A. G. Frank’s ‘theory of development of underdevelopment’.P1Test 10 Q 7Critically examine the contribution of dependency theories in understanding the present global scenario.

Mock Test

Paper I Q 8b

Developing countries are vulnerable to exploitation during global crises. In the light of this statement explain the dependency of developing nations on the global institutions.
8 b)What are new religious movements? Elaborate emphasizing their forms and orientations.P2Test 3 Q 3cDistinguish between sects and cults. Why religious cults are so popular today?
HLSN Q 49Sects and cults. Why it is proliferating today?
8 c)Examine the role of science and technology in addressing age-old taboos and superstitions.P2Test 8 Q 1eTechnology has changed the way people work and think. In the light of this statement examine how technology changes societies?

Sociology paper-II


S.NoUPSC QuestionsReflected  Questions
1 a)Highlight the significant features of A.R. Desai’s ‘Dialectical Perspective’ to study Indian society.P2Test 1 Q 3aHow far A.R.Desai adopted dialectical-historical model to explain India’s social structure and processes?
P1Test 11 Q 7Elaborate A.R.Desai’s perspective to the study of Indian society. What are the limitations of the dialectical approach to the study of Indian society?
HLLA Q3A.R.Desai’s dialectical materialism/Indian Nationalism
1 b)“The decade of 1950s was the golden period of village studies in Indian Sociology.” Explain the statement.P1Test 12 Q 1Distinguish between the ‘book view’ and ‘field view’ of the Indian caste system.
P2Test 5 Q 1eCritically examine briefly the phrase “Little Republics” as used to denote India’s villages.
HLSN Q5Book view Vs field view
1 c)Analyze the differences between the attributional and interactional approach in studying the caste system.HLLA Q7Perspectives on the study of caste systems: Louis Dumont and Andre Beteille
P2Test 1 Q 5CExplain GS Ghurye’s Indological approach to the understanding of Indian society.
1 d)Are Tradition and Modernity antithetical to each other? Comment.P1Test 10 Q 9Examine the dialectical relation between tradition and modernity in the study of social change.
P2Test 10 Q 2b“Tradition and modernity are misplaced polarities in the study of social change in India.” Elucidate.
1 e)Discuss the main features of Land Reforms in post-independence India.P2Test 10 Q 1dHas land reforms brought about desired agrarian transformation? Give suitable illustrations
HLSN Q46Can Land reforms curb rural inequalities/poverty
2 a)Do you agree with the view of Andre Beteille that India’s villages are representative of Indian society’s basic civilizational values? Present a sociological overview.HLSN Q24The myth of village self sufficiency– M.N.Srinivas/Andre Beteille/S.C.Dube
P2Test 5 Q 1eCritically examine briefly the phrase “Little Republics” as used to denote India’s villages.
2 b)Elaborate the salient features and the role of middle class in India’s democracy and development.P2

Mock Test

Paper-II Q 3c

Describe the process of emergence of the middle class in India
P 2Test 10 Q 2cHow has the New Economic Policy (1991) affected the middle class in India?
2 c)Analyse the role of market and modern forces in understanding the changing trends in marriage systems in India.P2Test 9 Q 6bExamine the emerging trends in marriage and family as a response to the social transformation.
HLLA Q8Family/Marriage Changes / crisis in India Today (Impact of Urbanisation / Industrialisation /Globalisation/Live in relationship/Legalisation of Homosexuality)
3 a)Contextualize Louis Dumont’s concept of ‘binary opposition’ with reference to caste system in India.P2

Mock Test

Paper II

Q 7a

Discuss the Louis Dumont’s concept of purity and pollution. How far these concepts are relevant in explaining the Hindu caste system?
P1Test 12 Q 7‘Collectivism and hierarchy’, are the organizing principles of the ‘caste system’ . Critically examine Louis Dumont’s concept of purity and pollution.
3 b)Define the concepts of ‘Descent’ and ‘Alliance’. Differentiate between North Indian and South Indian Kinship systems with examples.P2Test 7 Q 1eHow do the rules of descent and alliance in kinship differ from each other? Illustrate.
HLSN Q15North Indian Vs South Indian kinship system
P2Test 7 Q 1BWhat, according to Irawati Karve, are the major differences between North Indian and South Indian Kinship systems?
3 c)Critically examine the concept of Sanskritisation with suitable examples.P2Test 1 Q 1dWhy Sanskritization is criticised as regressive  to the extent that it is antithetical to any subaltern political initiative  against caste?
HLSN Q1Sanskritisation and Westernisation
4 a)Analyse the perspectives of Isolation, Assimilation and Integration in understanding the trajectories of Tribal Development.P2Test 10 Q 6bAnalyse the colonial and post colonial policies for tribes in India.
HLSN Q20Tribal policies- Integration/Assimilation of Tribes – Problem of Tribal identity/tribal autonomy
4 b)Explain the implications and the impact of globalization in situating the changing agrarian class structure in India.P2Test 5 Q 5dComment on the factors responsible for the growth and consolidation of middle-level peasantry in rural India. How it is related to capitalism in Indian agriculture?
P2Test 5 Q 6bCritically discuss the changing  agrarian modes of production in Indian society
4 c)Critique the victory narratives of Green Revolution in the context of Indian society.HLLA Q11Changing Modes of Production in Indian Agriculture – Green revolution / Globalisation / Capitalism
5 a)Citing some case studies, expand the concept of ‘Development-induced Displacement’.HLLA Q21Uneven development/displacement induced development and Tribal unrest
  P1Test 16 Q 9The problem of displacement is inherent in the idea of development. Analyze the statement critically.
5 b)Examine the concept of ‘Cultural Pluralism’ in the context of India’s Unity in Diversity.P2Test 3 Q 5aWrite a note on ‘cultural pluralism’ in multi-religious society like India.
5 c)Highlight the salient features of the New Education Policy (NEP) 2020.P2Test 8 Q 1bSociology of New Education Policy
5 d)Analyse the sociological interconnections between Social Media and Mass Mobilization in India.P2

Mock Test

Paper-II Q 5d

In what ways social media network facilitate new social movements? Give suitable examples
HLSN Q72Social media network/face book
5 e)Discuss the nature of regional variations in sex-ratio in India, stating reasons thereof.P2

Mock Test

Paper-II Q 2c

Explain the relation between son meta preference and declining child sex ratio
P 2Test 7 Q 1dUnderline the socio-cultural factors responsible for India’s skewed sex-ratio.
HLSN Q35Son meta preference and declining child sex ratio
6 a)How do you account for the increasing influence of religion in public and personal spheres in the context of secularization thesis in India? Explain.P2

Mock Test

Paper-I Q 6a

Critically analyse the dialectical relations between secularization and cultural nationalism with suitable illustrations
P2Test 3 Q 3a“Secularization is not an either-or phenomenon”. Explain the statement in the light of global trends toward secularity.
P1Test 9 Q 8The rise of fundamentalism in modern society, points to the fact that both secularization as well as religious revivalism are happening at the same time. Examine
HLLA Q24Secularization and Cultural Nationalism/pluralism
6 b)In the face of rising global climatic concerns, how do you contextualize the relevance of the Chipko movement and its Gandhian tone? Answer analytically.P2Test 8 Q 5eExplain environmentalism as a new social movement.
P2Test 4 Q 3bDiscuss the various forms of environmental movements waged in India.
HLLA Q28Environmental movements /Global warming/Ecocentrism
6 c)What actionable measures would you suggest to curb the recurrent child labour menace in India?P2Test 2 Q 6cAnalyse the  determinants of child labour in India today
P1Test 15 Q 3Point out the main causes of ‘child labour’ in India. How far state policies have succeeded in its elimination?
HLSN Q48Child labour/Child labour Act 2016
7 a)Do you think that the decades of Dalit political mobilisations and movements have helped in strengthening India’s democracy? Substantiate your arguments with facts.P1

Test 4 Q 5e


Analyze the term ‘dalit’ and the evolution of the related concept as a reflection of the changing consciousness and self – assertion of the dalit community


HLTest 15 Q 6What is identity politics? Discuss the main trends in Dalit movements in India.
P2LA Q24Dalit consciousness today and its challenges
7 b)What is ‘reverse migration’? Discuss its features, causes and consequences in India.P2Test 10 Q 6cWhat are the sociological reasons and implication of “reverse migration” during the recent pandemic in India?
P2Test 5 Q 5cMigration as a social and cultural process, not merely an economic one. Analyse in the light of sociological studies
HLTest 2 Q 1dLabour migration is a socio-economic issue.Analyse
7 c)Discuss the phenomenon of rural-urban continuum with suitable examples.P2SN Q 40Rural -Urban continuum
8 a)Explain the thematic linkages between ‘Patriarchy’  and  ‘Honour killing’ in India, citing some recent cases.P1Test 7 Q 2bDefine patriarchy. How does patriarchy manifest in interpersonal relations?
HLTest 9 Q 1What is patriarchy. Discuss how the power of patriarchy is asserted in both the private and public sphere simultaneously. Evaluate
HLSN Q13Sociology of Inter caste marriages / Caste conflicts / Honour killing
8 b)Discuss the challenges faced by the cooperative movements in India. Suggest measures to strengthen the movement at the grass-roots level.P2LA Q12Programmes of rural development, Community Development Programme, cooperatives
P2Test 10 Q 6bPoverty breeds poverty in rural India.” Evaluate poverty alleviation and   Rural Development Programmes in the light of this statement. What role do co-operatives play in poverty alleviation in rural India
8 c)What is ‘Ageing’? Discuss the major problems of aged people in India.P1Test 10 Q 3cHow is ageing becoming an emerging issue in Indian society? Do you agree that the role of elderly care giving is disproportionately gendered in developing countries?






We are claiming the questions based on our SOCIOLOGY ONE YEAR TEST BATCH conducted in two phases and the HIT list (HL) which has Short Notes (SN ),Long Answer(LA)

The first Phase (P1) had 16 sectional tests. The second Phase (P2) had 8 Sectional tests +4 Full tests .

Hit list (HL) is a list of  important topics which will be released to aid the revision of aspirants during Mains exam time for the last 15 years .

To the Kind Attention of the Aspirants,



Regarding 1a,1b,1c,5d of Paper 1



Paper – I

  • We are not claiming Q 1a,1b,1c,5d of UPSC CSE 2023 as the verbatum of these questions was not asked in SOCIOLOGY ONE YEAR TEST batch 2022-23. For students who attended SOCIOLOGY INTEGRATED COURSE the lectures gave them insights to attend these questions .

*Only the words are different but the demand of the questions asked in UPSC CSE 2023 is similar to the one that was asked in the SOCIOLOGY ONE YEAR TEST BATCH. The detailed discussion of those questions by Mr.S.SIVARAJAVEL  helped students answer those questions with confidence .




Gone are the days when UPSC civil services examination question papers follow compartmentalization approach where mastering separate subjects alone was enough to clear the examination.Today UPSC follows integration approach that test the candidates’ ability to integrate and crosslink all subjects mentioned in the syllabus.